Wednesday 24 January
A Review of OVDs and their use with Digital Electronic Devices
Our 2018 short course will provide a comprehensive technical coverage of the features that qualify in providing optical security for documents – find out more about the topics covered and the presenters by visiting the short course page.
Thursday 25 January
This day is dedicated to a day of general sessions with paper presentations from various organisations. See our themes below.
Human Factors and Design
As People Do Not Check, Counterfeiters Settle for 50%
Hans de Heij 09:00
De Nederlandsche Bank NV. Amsterdam.
The concept of public features as a first line of defence was introduced in the 1980s. This policy needs to be reviewed, as interest in public authenticity features of banknotes is declining. Two recent studies conducted in the Netherlands point in this direction. A third study reveals that the counterfeiter anticipates and settles for a ‘medium’ reproduction quality.colour changing rolling bar and a portrait hologram.
Lab-Based Perception Studies: Ten Years of Experimentation
Badr Omrane, Erik Balodis, Theodoros Garanzotis 09:25
Bank of Canada
This presentation highlights the Bank of Canada’s experience with perception studies over the last ten years, describing how those methods have evolved to provide valuable insights into the understanding of human authentication behaviours and better information for developing bank notes. This progression of lab-based methodologies has highlighted a number of interesting factors in authentication, including the importance of “first glance” evaluation, the extent of the role played by intuitiveness and perceptual quality, as well as the effects of training, external instruction, and multiple decisional choices on human authentication behaviour.
Computer-assisted Visual Perception to Enhance Banknote Design
Heinrich Terborg 09:50
Banco de México
Using traditional methods to assess the functionality of a new banknote involves a series of time consuming and costly studies such as surveys, focus groups, eye tracking, EEG, which require the production of specimen banknotes with the further downside of having to disclose unissued note designs. As explained in this paper Banco de México has developed and implemented a series of computer algorithms as a first attempt to mimic human perception, to promote an in-house iterative design process and a better integration of banknote security features.
Design Considerations for Integration of OVD Security Features
Tyra McConnell 10:45
U.S. Department of State Counterfeit Deterrence Laboratory
The effectiveness of a security feature depends on the availability of the technology in commercial markets, ease of feature recognition and inspection by both trained and untrained viewers. Equally important is how the feature is integrated into the document to maximize its value. There are different strategies to make any patch security feature more resistant to transplantation from a genuine document into a counterfeit document. OVD images from various genuine security documents will be provided to show a range of different design executions to demonstrate different strategies applied in issued security documents.
Neurometrics Applied to Banknote Design: a First Validation Study
José María Sánchez Echave and others; Mariano Alcañiz Raya 11:10
Banco de España; Universitat Politècnica de València
The objective of this study is to validate a new methodology that helps us to understand how we perceive the banknotes. To do this, we will make use of the latest neuroscience techniques and the measurement of the human behaviour to different banknotes designs. Parsing several physiological responses along with the subject conscious assessment while they feel and look at the banknote, we will analyse the existence of patterns in unconscious responses and potential correlations between the obtained neurometrics and the final design evaluation in order to be able to establish a new type of banknote design perception test.
Validation of Laser Engraved Floating Portraits as a Means for Document Authentication
Christopher Haas 11:35
We conducted human trials to test the accuracy of the authentication process across different laser-engraved floating image (LEFI) ghost portrait sizes and levels of matching difficulty. Subjects analysed many pairs of 2D and LEFI portraits. Results suggested that these ghost portraits could be compared to 2D portraits as a means of document authentication even in small sizes and under difficult discrimination conditions. However, size is even more critical for LEFI portraits than for conventional ghost images in terms of authentication accuracy and time taken. Based on this, we identified a minimum acceptable LEFI size that allows optimal authentication.
Colourful Images for Secure Windows from Thin-Film Coated Micro-Mirrors
Christian Fuhse 13:15
Papierfabrik Louisenthal GmbH
It is well-known that various optical effects viewed in reflected light can be generated by combining micro-mirrors with thin-film interference coatings. But this technology can also be adapted to generate impressive optical effects in transmitted light. A semi-transparent interference coating shows different colours in transmitted and in reflected light. For example, it may appear golden in reflection and blue in transmission. Since the colour in transmission depends on the viewing angle it can be controlled via the inclination of the micro-mirrors. This enables the generation of multi-colour transmission images where the colours change when the sample is tilted.
Moiré in Transmission – an Eye-catching Window Effect
Harald Walter 13:40
We present novel security features based on moiré magnification but without the need for micro-lenses. Instead, demetallization patterns are used as the magnifying element. The micro-images are a de-metallized pattern in a second layer, separated from the demetallized magnifying element by transparent polymer. The demetallized detail size needed is on the order of 5µm. This is achievable in roll-to-roll mass production with an in-house developed, extremely high-resolution, demetallization technology. The moiré movement effect is seen in transmission. Additionally both metal layers possess different KINEGRAM designs in reflection.
A Transparent OVD Based on the Combination of Novel Origination Technology with Wet Index Coatings
Marcus Koch 14:05
A transparent DOVID based on a mask-less lithographic origination process is described. All gratings are individually generated at highly variable parameter settings regarding pitch, depth, contour and vector orientation, resulting in unique optical feature characteristics at optimized diffraction efficiencies. For transmission viewing more than four times the gratings’ depth of reflective devices had to be realized without loss in high spatial resolution. Sealing of the gratings was well achieved by wet coating of HRI or LRI polymers. Technical details will be presented and samples will demonstrate the great potential for transparent OVD applications in documents.
Lensless Security Feature Printed on Transparent Substrate
Sylvain Chosson 14:30
Orell Füssli Security Printing
This paper describes an optical variable security feature which is not based on lenses nor on diffractive structure. This is composed of a three-layer structure: a mirroring layer, such as a foil or a metallic print, is applied on one side of a transparent substrate, such as the window of a banknote. On the other side of the transparent substrate, a thin structure is printed. Only the printed structure carries the information to be revealed. At least two images are embedded into the printed structure. Those two images are seen by rotating the feature. It can be used for banknote individualization.
Personalisation and ID Features
An Ultra-thin OVD for Personalisable Active and Passive Security Features
Peiman Hosseini and others; Harish Bhaskaran 15:30
Bodle Technologies; University of Oxford
We present an extremely versatile type of ultra-thin coating capable of reversibly manipulating light using optical, electrical or heat excitation. Light modulation is achieved by reversibly changing the physical phase of an unstructured, ultra-thin (7-15 nm) continuous layer of chalcogenide-based phase change material sandwiched between two transparent layers. The optical stack is designed to switch precisely between two states with tuneable colour and view angle variability, in a few microseconds, with high contrast, high reflectivity and without consuming any power once the switching is completed.
The Beauty of Light - Enhanced Usability and Multi-level Document with Embedded Light
Joerg Fischer 15:55
Beside a vivid light emission, LEDs provide multi-level optical security functions, such as angle-dependent image morphing based on holographic structures, or forensic material information in the unique optical spectrum. We will unveil an ID card with on-card fingerprint sensor and attractive user guidance based on integrated LEDs. This smart ID document offers a user friendly and secure biometric identification alternative to conventional password methods. Details of the system with electronic and optical components will be discussed.
Personalized Colour-Shift in Polycarbonate
André Arsenault 16:20
Opalux’s security print technology can be thermally tuned using laser marking, allowing personalization of identification documents with colour-shifting portraits. Previously, OpalPrint’s thermal transition was well below the lamination temperatures used in polycarbonate identification documents (200 °C or more), preventing its application in this platform. Now, Opalux has developed its materials to tolerate high temperature lamination while remaining laser tuneable. This talk will describe the structure/property of this material, including its conversion into foils for hot-stamping, the effect of polycarbonate lamination conditions, the effect of laser parameters on marking properties, and tolerance to a range of common circulation hazards.
Personalization of Transmissive Security Feature
Beatriz Cerrolaza Martínez 16:45
Personalized LILIAC® is a new generation of security features for transparent windows including the personalization option while keeping the essence of the original solution with respect to transparency, absence of interference between the images during the verification process and low-thickness. This new functionality allows the individual personalization of each element in one or both sides. Three alternative processes to accomplish personalization in a cost and time efficient way will be describe in detail. The possibilities for this security feature for transparent windows will be shown, from serialization to cardholder portrait generation.
Conference Dinner, Poster Papers Session and Table Top Exhibition
Friday 26 January
This day is dedicated to a day of general sessions with paper presentations from various organisations. See our themes below.
Smartphone Authentication or Smartphone Interaction
Smartphone-Based Authentication with Colour-Selective Light Steering Structures
Guillaume Basset 09:00
We present here a novel DOVID-like feature, invisible to the human eye, to be visible and authenticated using smartphones. Using Resonant Waveguide Gratings (RWGs), we designed a diffractive pattern invisible except under a narrow viewpoint. This new feature allows colour-selective beam steering, is fully compatible with existing DOVID production infrastructures and can be embedded in any security device. The feature can work in any part of the spectrum and can direct white light from any low coherent source without the need of any additional filter or polarizer. Multiple images and kinetic animation prototypes made with this technique will be presented.
Laser-induced Illumination-Dependent PVD-coatings
Ralph Dominick 09:00
Physical vapour deposition (PVD) layer stacks with a specific composition and morphology are deposited onto flexible PET carriers. These coated PET films are placed on paper or plastic surfaces. By using a standard marking laser, the PVD layer stacks are encoded and transferred from the PET carrier onto the paper or plastic surface as “PVD markings”. Such a PVD marking cannot be removed without destruction and shows a unique, illumination-dependent visual effect that can be authenticated with smartphones (offline) by using customized apps. In this paper the working principle is explained and examples for applications are shown.
The Modelling of Caustics to Produce a Projection Image
Luke Maguire 09:50
Reserve Bank of Australia
This technique projects a desired image when an array of micro-lenses embossed into the banknote substrate is exposed to a light source. The feature is designed computationally to make the projected image difficult to discern by inspection of the lens structures, and to accommodate a range of light sources, allowing wide accessibility to users with a mobile phone light. The projected image is formed from a collection of Gaussian-shaped caustic profiles, each arising due to light refracting through a single micro-lens.
Micro- and Nano-Materials
Security Printing Applications Inspired from Nanotechnology: A Review
Jon Kellar and others 10:45
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Over the past decades, worldwide nano-scale materials development has accelerated, resulting in a staggering number of new, sometimes exotic, functional materials. These new materials have sparked considerable interest in fields such as renewable energy, biotechnology, and biomedicine, but also hold potential for security printing. This paper reviews, and offers examples of, the application of nano-scale synthesised materials for security documents. The performance of nano-scale materials on security-relevant functionality, such as photonics, wettability, and solubility, will be reviewed.
Assessing the Resistance of Micro-lens Security Features to Reverse Engineering
Robert Stewart 11:10
Micro-lens images have been a familiar sight for several decades, but until the last decade or so their application has been limited to relatively thick polymer sheets (200 microns +) but recently have been used in thinner banknote materials. The difficulty of acquiring or producing lens arrays of a thickness sufficiently close to that used in the banknotes; printing at a sufficiently high resolution to match the lenses, and convincing integration with other features are all deterrents to counterfeiting. These characteristics, the expertise required and the counterfeit-resistance of micro-lens features are assessed, stressing the aspects that hinder the counterfeiter.
Diffractive Lenticular Stereogram Image
Michael Hardwick; Randy James 11:35
CCL Secure; Pacific Holographics
We combine existing diffractive and lens technology to produce a diffractive lenticular stereogram image. This is achieved through printing lenses on one side of a polymer banknote window with a holographic structure on the other side. This produces a sharp, well defined image with vibrant diffractive effects and true colour effects. The use of specialised and unique origination techniques as well as a purpose-built printing platform make this security feature a highly secure and attractive addition to polymer banknotes. This paper will cover the design, origination and manufacturing techniques, as well as obstacles overcome during the manufacturing of the feature.
Interlaced Micro-mirrors Providing Dynamic 3D and Animation for Overt OVDs in Diffused Light
Mark Raymond 12:00
Revolutionary computer-aided micro-mirror technology opens the door for a new generation of visually compelling and secure overt 3D and animated features “written” in light with voxels. While the current field of holography and micro-mirror technologies offer limited effects, especially in ambient or diffused light, this innovative technology offers the possibility of up to 100 unique image frames. The result is a continuous 3D or animation image, dynamic and secure, with infinite axes activation in any lighting condition without lenses.
Production and Protection of Banknotes
Intelligent Protection and Authentication in Payment Transactions by Smart Banknotes
Volker Lohweg and others; Johannes Schaede and others 13:45
inIT – Institute Industrial IT, Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Applied Science; KBA-NotaSys; and others
We describe new, smart, banknotes that are intelligent and able to generate their own digital product memory by imprinted, dynamic control elements. As long as the banknotes are in circulation, they store different information that can be globally retrieved. Consumers and automatic teller machines may use these elements to confirm banknotes’ authenticity. The goal is achieved by new methods in banknote production and new algorithms and chemo-optical devices that equip these banknotes with active, local intelligence.
Advanced UV Security Features: From Design to Product Integration
Michaël Barret; Martin Egginger 14:10
Banque de France; Hueck Folien
A method of printing UV-fluorescent polychromatic images which has the potential for good counterfeit resilience through advanced print characteristics and tightly controlled visual rendition is presented. Based on a patented half-toning technique, the image processing workflow simplifies colour management and enables the reproduction of sharp, brilliant images with accurate saturated colours, subtle skin tones and smooth gradients. Another benefit relates to its greater capability with regard to constant image quality making it less susceptible to the inherent variations of traditional security foil printing methods. An innovative concept of integrated design in holographic metallized foil will be presented.
Landmark-based Template Grouping to Speedup Media Recognition
Yun-Qian Miao; Gary Ross 14:35
In processing interactive currency transaction, such as at an ATM or SCoT, the customers’ convenience is a core focus. To achieve this, not only is accuracy essential but quick throughput is also of high concern to the banknote authentication module. At NCR we have developed a fast banknote recognition method based on an efficient landmark-based template grouping technology. The presentation will explain the details and report results of our comparative study. It will address such question as: What are landmarks and how are currency templates grouped? How much does it boost the recognition process speed?
The Use of Spray Pyrolysis Technology in Security Materials Production
Pascal Pinceloup 15:00
STA Technologies, a SICPA company
The performance and reliability of anti-counterfeiting solutions incorporating security taggants and particles depend on the uniform properties of security materials. The use of the spray pyrolysis manufacturing process, characterised by high-precision batch-to-batch reproducibility, ensures the effective recognition of these particles specifically generated for machine-readable functionalities and forensic applications. The new developments of luminescent, magnetic and forensic taggant materials made by spray pyrolysis have opened up a realm of innovative solutions for issuing authorities and appointed laboratories.
Accurate Plate-to-Plate Registration for Multi-colour Lens-array Banknote Security Patterns
Jacques Perrier 15:25
Multi-colour lens-array-based banknote security patterns require the highest registration between colours. A new plate alignment technique based on the banknote constituent patterns is presented. Most banknote security patterns are made of lines. These lines can be used to infer the plates’ mis-registration as their nominal relative positions are known from the design data. Plate-to-plate registration can thus be measured at multiple locations within the printed sheet. Optimal plate positions are derived from the registration maps and fed back to the press. The image processing, the optimization methods, and the result consistency are discussed as well as an automatic measurement table.
Close of Conference and Farewell Drinks